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A number in parentheses indicates the year of last reapproval. A superscript epsilon e indicates an editorial change since the last revision or reapproval. Asrm symbols are listed in accordance with their spelling in English. The second is an alphabetical listing of relevant abbreviations. Current edition approved Nov. Originally approved in Last previous edition approved in as E — The listing of de?
E blunting line—in fracture testing, a line that approximates apparent crack advance due to crack-tip blunting in the absence of slow stable crack tearing. The line is de? This estimate of pseudo-crack advance, DaBis based on the effective yield strength of the material tested.
E circulation rate [L3 T?
E clipping—in fatigue spectrum loading, the process of decreasing or increasing the magnitude of all loads strains that are, respectively, above or below a speci? E compliance LF? E constant life diagram— in fatigue, a plot usually on rectangular coordinates of a family of curves each of which is for a single fatigue life, N, relating stress amplitude, Sa, to mean 3 stress, Sm, or maximum stress, Smax, or both, to minimum stress, Smin.
E corrosion fatigue—the process by which fracture occurs prematurely under conditions of simultaneous corrosion and repeated cyclic loading at lower stress levels or fewer cycles than would be required in the absence of the corrosive G 15 environment.
E crack size, a [L]—a lineal measure of a principal planar dimension of a crack. This measure is commonly used in the calculation of quantities descriptive of the stress and displacement? E crack strength, sc [FL? Thus, it takes into account the original size of the crack but ignores any crack extension that may occur during the test. EE crack extension, Da [L]—an increase in crack size. E crack-extension force, G [FL? From past usage, G is commonly astj with linear-elastic methods of analysis, although the J see J-integral also may be used for such E analyses.
E E crack length, a [L]—See crack size and surface crack length. Also see crack length in the Description of Terms. E crack-mouth opening displacement CMOD2vm [L]—the Mode 1 also called opening-mode component of crack displacement resulting from the total deformation elastic plus plasticmeasured under force at the location on a crack surface that has ast, greatest elastic awtm per unit force.
Other criteria may be used but should be clearly de? E crystallographic cleavage—the separation of a asttm along a plane of? The symbol N see de? E cyclic loading—See fatigue loading. E dynamometer—an elastic calibration device used to verify the indicated forces applied by a fatigue testing system. It shall consist of an instrumented member having mass, stiffness, and end displacements such that the inertial effects of the specimen and its attachments to the testing machine for which the veri?
A strain gaged specimen is often used as a dynamometer. E dynamometer dynamic forces [F]—the maximum and minimum forces or the mean force and e18233 force amplitude that correspond to the readings obtained from the dynamometer output according to an existing static calibration. A dynamometer for use in tension and in compression will have two dynamometer ranges, one in tension and one in E compression. Another method for calculation of ae involves comparing the compliance from the secant of a force-de?
The reference plane depends on the specimen form, and it is normally taken to r1823 either the boundary, or a plane containing either the force line or the centerline of a specimen or plate. The reference plane is de? E estimation—in statistical analysis, a procedure for making a statistical inference about the numerical values of one or more unknown population parameters from asm observed values in a sample. E exceedances spectrum— in fatigue loading, 1e823 of spectrum loading contents by the number of times speci?
E fatigue—the process of progressive localized permanent structural change occurring in a material subjected to conditions that produce? E environment chamber— in fatigue testing, the container of the bulk volume surrounding a test specimen.
Standard Terminology Relating to Fatigue and Fracture Testing
E environment chamber volume [L3]—in fatigue testing, that bulk volume surrounding a test specimen. E environment composition [ML? E environment hydrogen content [ML?
E environment monitoring— in fatigue testing, the periodic or continuous measurement of? E environment oxygen content [ML? E environment pressure [FL? E environment temperature— in fatigue testing, the temperature of the bulk volume surrounding a test specimen. E environment volume [L3]—in fatigue testing, the total volume immediately surrounding a test specimen plus that contained in a circulating reservoir if applicable. E estimate—in statistical analysis, the particular value or values of a parameter computed by an estimation procedure for a given sample.
E fatigue cycle—See cycle. Fatigue life, or the logarithm of fatigue life, is a dependent variable.
E fatigue limit, S f [FL? These specimens are frequently tested asym a mean stress of zero. E fatigue loading—periodic, or not periodic,? Also known as cyclic loading. Early data pertained almost exclusively to mild steels, namely, to S a?
Standard terminology relating to fatigue and fracture testing – CERN Document Server
N curves with knees. N curves were almost parallel and almost horizontal. Otherwise, the k f data are not consistent and are markedly dependent on the type of notch, the fatigue life of interest, and the value of the mean stress. Nevertheless, kf is highly dependent on the percentile of interest. E mechanics tests, which are directly applicable in fracture control. However, the term commonly includes results from tests of notched or precracked specimens which do not involve fracture mechanics analysis.
Results from tests of the latter type are often useful for fracture control, based upon either service experience or empirical correlations with tests analyzed using fracture mechanics.
E fatigue notch sensitivity, q—a measure of the degree of agreement between fatigue notch factor, kf, and theoretical stress concentration factor, kt. Thus, these values should not be extrapolated to Sm? The value of SN thus determined is subject to the same conditions as those which apply to the S? This is also known as the median fatigue strength for N cycles.
E frequency distribution—the way in which the frequencies of occurrence of members of a population, or a sample, are distributed in accordance with the values of the variable under consideration. E group—in fatigue, specimens of the same type tested at a speci?
A group may comprise one or more specimens. R1823 hold time [T]—in fatigue testing, the amount of time awtm the cycle where the controlled test variable for example, force, strain, displacement remains constant with time. E ideal crack—a simpli? In a stress-free body, the crack has two smooth surfaces that aastm coincident and join within the body along a smooth curve called the crack front; in two-dimensional representations the crack front is called the crack tip.
E ideal-crack-tip stress? In a linear-elastic homogeneous body, the signi? E independent variable—the selected and controlled variable namely, stress or strain.
It is denoted X when plotted on E appropriate coordinates. The force transducer calibration may have been furnished by the machine manufacE turer or may have been developed by the user. E force transducer—a device which indicates xstm applied force by means of an electrical voltage. Usually the electrical E voltage increases linearly with applied force.
E irregularity factor— in fatigue loading, the ratio of the number of zero crossings with positive slope or mean crossings to the number of peaks or valleys in a given, force-time history. E irregular loading— See spectrum loading. However, in service components and perhaps in test specimenscaution is needed to adequately consider loading interior to G such as from motion of the crack and from residual and thermal stress.
The parameter J is the difference in work per unit difference in crack area at a? E load, —see force E load cell—see force transducer force cycle—See cycle. In constant amplitude loading, the range is given as follows: J-R curve—a plot of resistance to stable crack extension, Dap. The most widely used ratios are as follows 8 For further discussion, see Rice, J. However, when applied to a collection of data without further quali?
E loading unloading rate [F T? E log-normal distribution—the distribution of N when log N is normally distributed. Accordingly, it is convenient to analyze log N using methods based on the normal E distribution.
ASTM E – 13 – Standard Terminology Relating to Fatigue and Fracture Testing
By convention, tensile forces are positive and compressive forces are negative. E maximum stress-intensity factor, Kmax [FL? E This value corresponds to P max.
E minimum force, P min [F]—in fatigue, the lowest algebraic value of applied force in a cycle. E minimum stress-intensity factor, Kmin [FL?