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A totally blind process can by definition lead to anything; it can even lead to vision itself” Monod He goes on to point out that today the mechanism of invariance is sufficiently understood to the point that no non-physical principle “biotonic law” is needed for its interpretation. By asserting the principle of objectivity, which is accepted in modern science, one is choosing to adhere to what Monod calls the ethic of knowledge.
Here the author restates that nature is objective and does not pursue an end or have a purpose and he points out an apparent “epistemological [the study of the origin, nature, methods, and limits of human knowledge] contradiction” between the teleonomic character of living organisms and the principle of objectivity. Monod reminds us that this reaction comes at the expense of chemical potential energy. At the end of this chapter Monod states that the thesis he “shall present in this book is that the biosphere does not contain a predictable class of objects or of events but constitutes a particular occurrence, compatible indeed with first principles, but not deducible from those principles and therefore essentially unpredictable” Monod, He continues to explain how this important discovery has made it the duty of scientists to share with and enhance other disciplines of thought such as philosophy.
Activation through a precursor is defined as when an enzyme is activated by a precursor of its substrate and a particularly frequent case of this is activation of the enzyme by the substrate itself.
Bonus Vita: Jacques Monod: El Azar y la necesidad!
He talks about the extraordinary specificity of action that enzymes display as exemplified by their ability to not only recognize a specific geometric isomer but an optical isomer as well. Monod believes the ultimate aim of science is to “clarify man’s relationship to the universe” Monod, xi and mecesidad that reasoning he accords biology a central role.
To them a being made sense and was understandable only through the purpose animating the being and so if mysterious objects, such as rocks, rivers, rain, and stars, exist it must also be for a purpose essentially there are no inanimate objects to them. Next would have been the formation of the first macromolecules capable of replication probably through spontaneous base pairing.
About two minutes after adding a galactoside inducer the rate of synthesis of the three proteins g a thousandfold. The author points out that non-covalent interactions attain stability only through numerous interactions and when applied over short distances. Monod points out that this animist line of thought is still present in philosophy that makes no essential distinction between matter and life and frames biological evolution as a component of cosmic evolution evolutive force operating throughout the entire universe.
The last general property Monod offers up as distinguishing living organisms is reproductive invariance which is the ability of a living being to reproduce and transmit the information corresponding to their own highly ordered structure.
Next Monod makes reference to his own research and talks about the S shaped non-linear curve that is characteristic of allosteric enzymes when activity is plotted against concentration of an effector including the substrate. Each stage is more highly ordered and results from spontaneous interactions between products of the previous stage and the initial source is the genetic information represented by the polypeptide sequences. When Escherica coli are grown in a medium with no galactosides the three proteins are synthesized very slowly about one molecule every five generations.
By virtue of an enzyme’s capacity to form sterospecific and non-covalent complexes with specific substrate the substrate is correctly presented in the precise orientation that specifies the catalytic effect of the enzyme.
Jaime Echarri, Azar y necesidad en la filosofía de la vida de J. Monod. “In memoriam” – PhilPapers
He then points out that society is willing to accept a universal theory that is necesidaf with but does not foresee the particular configuration of atoms in a pebble but it is a different story when it comes to humans; “We would like to think ourselves necessary, inevitable, ordained from all eternity.
He offers the selective theory as being consistent with the postulate of objectivity and allowing for epistemological coherence.
Monod admits he is more interested in animism and will therefore devote more analysis to it. He explains that galactoside permease one of the proteins in the lactose system enables the galactoside sugars to penetrate and accumulate within the cell. In his view the biosphere is unpredictable for the same reason that the particular configuration of atoms in a pebble are unpredictable.
He states that the source of information for the antibodies associative structure is not the antigen itself but is instead the result of many random recombinations of part of the antibody gene. Monod joined the staff of the Pasteur Institute in Paris in and became its director in Monod later retracts autonomous morphogenesis spontaneous structuration as a property of living beings and says instead that it should be thought of as “mechanism” leaving two essential properties of living beings: He lists the prime functions of the brain in mammals as control and coordination of neuromuscular activity, to set into action innate programs of action in response to stimuli, to integrate sensory inputs, to register, group, and associate significant events, and to represent and simulate.
This too is regulated by genes. In this book, Monod adopted the term teleonomic to permit recognition of purpose in biology without appealing to a final cause.
Azar y necesidad en la filosofía de la vida de J. Monod. “In memoriam”
The author continues to mention the sterospecific, spontaneous assembly of ribosomes and T4 bacteriophage from their protein constituents in vitro. The biochemical processes that take place within an organism’s cells are controlled by the genes found inside DNA molecules.
First there must have been the formation of nucleotides and amino acids from simple carbon compounds and non-biological necsidad.
According to the in troduction the book’s title was inspired by a line attributed to Democritus, “Everything existing in the universe is the fruit of chance and necessity.
In advancing the concept of gene complexes that they called operons, Jacob and Monod postulated mono existence of a class of genes that regulate the function of other genes by affecting the synthesis of messenger RNA.