of groups of oriented particles, bird-like objects, or simply boids. To do this, three In the original work by Reynolds the cohesion and separation are two complementary steers. We introduce a .. [1] Craig W. Reynolds. Flocks, herds and. Craig W. Reynolds Symbolics Graphics Division . But birds and hence boids must interact strongly in order to flock correctly. Boid behavior is dependent not. Boids is an artificial life simulation originally developed by Craig Reynolds. The aim of the simulation was to replicate the behavior of flocks of birds. Instead of.

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Boids is an artificial life simulation originally developed by Craig Reynolds. The aim of the simulation was to replicate the behavior of flocks of birds. Instead of controlling the interactions of an entire flock, however, the Boids simulation only specifies the behavior of each individual bird.

With only a few simple rules, the program manages to generate a result that is complex and realistic enough to be used as a framework for computer graphics applications such as computer generated behavioral animation in motion picture films. An applet visualizing the Boids simulation can be seen at Craig Reynold’s Boids page. The Boids program consists of a group of objects birds that each have their own position, velocity, and orientation. There are only 3 rules which specify the behavior of each reyjolds Each bird attempts to maintain a reasonable amount of distance between itself and any nearby birds, to prevent overcrowding.


Birds try to change their position so that it corresponds with the average alignment boidss other nearby birds.

Boids | Emergent Mind

Every bird attempts to move towards the average position of other nearby birds. A “pseudocode” explanation of the Boids algorithm can be seen here.

As in the Game of Lifethe simple rules of the Boids simulation sometimes gives rise to surprisingly complex behavior. Although the long-term behavior of an entire flock is difficult if not impossible to predict, its motion and arrangement is predictable and noids over small periods of time.

A slightly more complex model involving obstacle avoidance has been used to allow the Boids to travel through a simulated environment, avoiding obstacles and rejoining together as a single flock. A short video demonstration of these types of behavior is available here.

Boids is only one of many experiments in what is known as the field of ” swarm intelligence “. A key aspect of swarm intelligence systems is blids lack of a centralized control agent–instead each individual unit in the swarm follows its own defined rules, sometimes resulting in surprising overall crwig for the group as cralg whole.

In ant colony optimizationthe goal is for ants to explore and find the optimal path s from a central colony to one or more sources of food.

Boids: An Implementation of Craig W. Reynolds’ Flocking Model

As with ants in real life, the simulated ants initially travel in random directions, but return to the colony once a food source is found. The key in the evolution of the simulation is the use of pheromone trails, which compel other ants to follow them.


Pheromone trails evaporate over time, so paths which are shorter end up being traveled more often. This results in a positive feedback mechanism which ensures that the entire group of ants will eventually converge on an optimal path. The problem-solving strategy of the ant colony can be applied to a number of different problems involving searches for optimal paths through graph structures.

For instance, ant colony optimization algorithms are suitable for use in the traveling salesman problem and other similar problems.

Craig Reynolds: Flocks, Herds, and Schools: A Distributed Behavioral Model

Video demonstrations of AntSima program implementing ant colony optimization, are available here and here. One application of the ideas involved in Boids and other swarm intelligence simulations is in the field of ” swarm robotics “.

In craiv cases, each robot needs to be programmed with the principles of swarm intelligence in craiig in order for the whole group to most efficiently complete the desired task. A key component in these systems is communication between individual robots in order to ensure that each is devoted to an appropriate task at hand.

Groups of small robots can be programmed with swarm intelligence algorithms.