nal. This is the only edition of any Maya Codex to be thus issued save those I have published, and a recent edition of the Troano, so cheaply and crudely done . The First Twenty-Three Pages of the Dresden Codex: The Divination Pages Dresden almanacs seeking parallels through which to better understand their. Download scientific diagram | Page 24 of the Dresden Codex (reprinted from Códice de Dresde, ). from publication: Identification of Postclassic Maya.
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Ancient Mayan civilization, flourished from B.
FAMSI – Maya Codices – The Dresden Codex
In particular, the Dresden Codex contains the most details of such ancient Mayan heritage. Page 24 and those from 46 to 50 of the Dresden Codex describe the Mayan Venus calendar along with the augural descriptions. We note that the calendar in Dresden Codex is Venus-solar calendar. Our work focuses on the possibility that the calendar was made to work in conjunction with the periodic appearance corice constellations on the cldice.
By analyzing the descriptions in the Venus pages, we propose that the columns in each page describe the motion of Venus with respect to major constellations at dates corresponding to special events while the calendar dates increase horizontally in the synodic period of Venus. We present twenty Mayan constellations identified from the Venus pages assuming that the first date of page 46 is February 6, We also report our understanding of verb expressions about the relative movement of constellations and Venus.
Mayan Civilization, Dresden CodexVenus, constellations, k’alah, tzeni. Ancient Mayan civilization developed in areas such as today’s Mexico, Guatemala, Honduras and Belize. These areas are located from North latitude 14 to 22 and from West longitude 84 to Mayan ruins are scattered in the thick rain forests among coeice many rivers and lakes.
Flourishing from about 1 B. During the Classic period the Mayan civilization was most developed dresds left innumerable records on stelae, murals, altars, and ceramic vases.
There are records about movement of heavenly bodies, myths of creation, and history of the life codie death of the great kings, etc. All these are recorded with dates based on Mayan calendars.
O Códice de Dresden
When the most developed Classic Mayan period at Peten, Guatemala, had decayed, some Mayans moved into the north of the Yucatan peninsula, Mexico. At that time the Postclassic Mayan Period had begun. During the Postclassic Period Mayans preferred to write their knowledge on buckskin or bark rather than on stelae.
These records are mostly practical information on their gods, codicr life, and astronomical knowledge in particular.
During the Postclassic period the Mayans may have made many codices, but there are only four codices remaining in existence today. Paris, Madrid, Dresden and Grolier, which were named after the places where they were codiec except the Grolier codex that has only 11 pages and describes changes of the Venus phases and how this relates to the gods.
The biggest codex, Madrid that has pages left, records that Mayans used codcie calendar of days. Also in Madrid is a vast amount of information about scribers, hunters, merchandisers, and related information about them. In Paris, which has 24 pages left, dresdf new Mayan calendar that starts every 20 years 2is introduced. It also mentions the gods for each year. Of the remaining codices, the Dresden codex was written in the most refined hieroglyphs and pictures.
It also has the most complete astronomical information. It tells us about the cyclic appearance of the Venus and lunar eclipses. It also informs us about the calendar based on planet movement, prophesies, gods, and ceremonies. In this paper, we investigate the Venus chapter that is written ds page 24, and from pages 46 to 50 3of the Dresden codex.
Los códices prehispánicos | Arqueología Mexicana
Page 24 provides general information about the five different trajectories of Venus and the method of correction of Venus cycle. From page 46 to 50, dates of the periodic table of the five different trajectories of Venus and related information cpdice be found.
Venus is the nearest planet from the Earth. It is the last stellar object that one can observe before dawn, and is the first object appearing at sunset. Venus has a unique cycle of visible and invisible periods that depend on its location relative to the Sun. Venus can also dersde observed changing its trajectory to the observer on the Earth. Because of these reasons, we suppose that the Venus was very important for the Mayans.
Venus Chapter of Dresden codex is composed of two sections: Venus periodic table and hieroglyphic texts. Since Knorozov presented interpretation of the Dresden codexmany investigators have tried to decipher fe codex and the Venus pages were considered as Mayan calendar Knorozov ; Aveny, ; Bricker ; Lounsbury But yet, besides Venus periodic table, neither the meaning of the whole dressde text nor how to actually use this Venus calendar is completely known.
We will propose a way to understand structure of these pages and present the findings on Maya constellations. The Venus Pages in Dresden Codex.
Page 24 Figure 1 is constituted by two parts. On the left hand side, there are hieroglyphic text that records events when Venus was visible in the East and information about the time passing. On the right hand side appears Venus cycle correction method Lounsbury The pages from 46 to 50 Figure 2 also have texts related with Venus and fe passing.
But the structure is different from page The left part of each page lists the dates of special events in the motion of Venus and contains the descriptions of the celestial events. The right part contains augural glyphs and figures.
In page 24 the general information about five trajectories of Venus can be found. We ve focus on the left part of the dreesde from 46 to 50 to understand the motion of Venus and the celestial events described. Figure 3 is a schematic diagram showing the structure of the pages, and the description of each panel is given in the caption. The combination of panels A and B gives the specific dates of the last and first days of Venus visibility for all 13 Venus cycles.
Ee C and F describe the motion of Venus with respect to vodice four celestial directions and constellations in the sky. Panel D lists the accumulated number of days from the beginning of the calendar to the current column within a Venus cycle, and panel H shows the interval of days to the next column.
The dates written in panels E and Dredse indicate days 6 in Haab cycle when events described in C and F happened.
Between these figures in panels I, K and M are some hieroglyphic text. The left part describes time passing and heavenly bodies changing while the right part depicts some unidentified figures. This insinuates that the left part is the description of logical process and the right part is dedicated to symbolic warnings of events. But the relationship of the two parts is still in question. The Venus pages of Dresden codex are comprised of 5 pages. They have the same structure but present different contents.
According to Aveny Connecting these points allows us to draw the Venus trajectory. From these we can recognize five different Venus trajectories. Each of the Venus pages represents one Venus synodic year and it repeats 5 times over pagescorresponding to the five trajectories.
On each page a Venus synodic year is split into four phases Aveny These intervals repeat on each page. The four dates at the top of each page are the dates of the changing phases of the Venus synodic year Paxton Panel D of each page lists the accumulative numbers of days. The panel A is a periodic table of the Venus cycle. One Venus cycle corresponds to each row marked by 20 dates in panel A from page 46 to And the next Venus cycle starts again on page 46 from the following row.
By this process 13 rows of the calendar cover the Venus cycle thirteen times. One Venus cycle, 2, days, is close to eight years since the total number of days in eight years is 8 x Since the Venus cycle is nearly an integer multiple of the terrestrial year, nearly the same situation repeats on the sky both Venus and constellations in each Venus cycle, meaning every 8 years.
A constellation seen at a specific date and location in a Venus cycle appears again at nearly the same time and the same direction in the next cycle. However, the difference between the Venus cycle and the eight years Earth revolution period is 2, When 13 Venus cycles have passed, the difference between the calendar and the actual period of the celestial events amounts to 13 x This means, the calendar is On the other hand, the difference between the Mayan Venus year of days and the true synodic year of Venus The error in one Venus cycle with respect to the true synodic period is After one Grand cycle the error in the Venus calendar accumulates by 13 x 5 x 0.
That is, the calendar is 5. On the other hand, the relative location of the Venus with respect to the constellations in the sky, changes by an amount corresponding to Therefore, if the Mayan Venus calendar was to be used repeatedly keeping the Venus cycle correctly, the calendar needs to be corrected by about 5 days after a Grand cycle. So then, if the Mayan Venus calendar in Dresden Codex was used with proper corrections for the beginning date after every Grand cycle, it could be used over and over again.
But if the calendar was to keep up with the constellations in the codlce, the calendar requires a significant correction of about 30 days after used for one Grand cycle and can be used only for a finite duration of time one or two Grand cycles, for example. Since this paper has focus on identifying the Mayan constellations, we will analyze only the left part of the Venus pages from pages 46 to 50, which is thought to be the records of celestial events and times; Figure 4 and Table 3 show the simplified deciphered text of these pages.
In each column of a page there are four dates in Tzolk’in and Haab cycle. The first date 3 Kib 4 Yaxk’in date given by Tzolk’in and Haab in combination is considered to be a specific date for an event in the first column. Besides this date, there are two Haab dates related with two phrases: When the verb ‘tie’ and ‘feed’ appear in panels C codoce F, four celestial directions and four different figure names are accompanied. Between them there are numbers of days corresponding to each phase of a Venus cresde year panel D and H.
It should be noticed that a figure name and a direction used in ‘tie’ verb phrase repeat in the ‘feed’ verb phrase in the next column. Codcie example, in panel C of the first column on page 46 one can find “tie north Ulum 8 Venus” and in panel F of second column ” Ulum feed Venus north”.
The figure name Ulum and the direction north were repeated on both phrases.