Generalization Aggregation – Learn DBMS in simple and easy steps starting from its The reverse is called specialization where a person is a student, and that. Terms such as superclass, subclass, or inheritance come to mind when thinking about the object-oriented approach. These concepts are very important when. Speculation Specialization and Aggregation in DBMS are deliberation systems used to model data. The reflection is the instrument used to shroud the.

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Specialization It is opposite to Generalization. For example, Saving and Current account types entities can be generalised and an entity with name Account can be created, which covers both. The reverse is called specialization where a person is a student, and that student is Mira.

Aggregation is an abstraction through which relationships are treated as higher-level entities. Comments Edit Question Edit Categories.

In generalization, a number of entities are brought together into one generalized entity based on their similar characteristics. It is a form of abstraction that specifies two or more entities sub class having common characters that yeneralization be generalized into one single entity super class at higher generzlization hiding all the differences.

The relationship between a superclass and a subclass is one-to-one 1: In generalization, the higher level entity can also combine with other lower level entities to make further higher level entity.

In the below-mentioned figure, whale, shark, and dolphin are generalized as fish, i. Engineering in your pocket Download our mobile app and study on-the-go.

The Enhanced ER Model

Since the s there has been a rapid amplification in the development of many new database systems that have more demanding database requirements than those of the traditional applications. Aggregation One limitation of the E-R model is that it cannot express relationships among relationships.

It breaks an entity into multiple entities from higher level super class to lower level sub class. An entity type that includes one or more dissimilar sub-groupings of its occurrences that is required to be represented in a data model.


Would you like to add a better answer? It is a top-down approach in which one higher level entity can be broken down into two lower level entity. As the basic concepts of ER modeling are often not enough to represent the requirements of the newer complex applications which therefore stimulated the need to develop additional ‘semantic’ modeling concepts.

Hence, as part of the Enhanced ER Modelalong with other improvements, three new concepts were added to the existing ER Model, they were:. Such an entity-set is treated in the same manner as any other entity-set. Answered on 24th Jul,95 Views.

In this way, the two deliberation instruments used to model data: Generalization Generalization is a bottom-up approach in which two lower level entities combine to form a higher level entity.

Notation of Generalization Generalization is represented by a triangle with a line. In this way, there are no ascribes particular to cruisers. Aggregation represents relationship between a whole object and its component. The details of entities are generally hidden from the user; this process known as abstraction. Specialization is the abstracting procedure of acquainting new qualities with a current class of items to make one or all the more new classes of articles.

The specialization of student allows us to distinguish among students according to whether they are Ex-Student or Current Student. For example, the attributes of a Person class such as name, age, and gender can be inherited by lower-level entities such as Student or Teacher. A person has name, date of birth, gender, etc. JavaScript Tutorials jQuery Tutorials.

The normal qualities implies here properties or techniques. In basic terms, a gathering of substances in specialization can be classified into sub-bunches in view of their attributes. As the hierarchy goes up, it generalizes the view of entities, and as we go deep in the hierarchy, it gives us the detail of every entity included.

The concept of generalization specialization is associated with special types of entities known as superclasses and subclasses, and the process of attribute inheritance. To illustrate the need for such a construct, quaternary relationships are used which lead to redundancy in data agggregation. Conglomeration is the procedure of ordering feneralization on an item, in this way abstracting a larger amount object.


The best way to mode such situations is to use aggregation. The entity shall be a student, and further, the student is a person. A generalization is a bottom-up approach. In the diagram above, the relationship between Center and Course together, is acting as an Entity, which is in relationship with another entity Visitor. It’s more like Superclass and Subclass system, but the only difference is the approach, which is bottom-up.

Generalization, Specialization and Aggregation in DBMS

For example, pigeon, house sparrow, crow and dove generallzation all be generalized as Birds. Various semantic data models have been proposed, and some of annd most important semantic concepts have been successfully incorporated into the original ER model.

Specialization might be seen as the opposite procedure of Generalization. Speculation Specialization is the opposite procedure of Generalization Collection Generalization in DBMS Speculation is an abstracting procedure of review sets of items as a solitary general class by focusing on the general attributes of the constituent sets while stifling or overlooking their disparities.

It is a top down approach in which we first define the super class and then sub class and then their attributes and relationships.

Generalization, Specialization and Aggregation Concepts in DBMS

It is a top-down approach in generzlization one higher level entity can be broken down into lower level entity. The ER Model has the power of expressing database entities in a conceptual hierarchical manner. It allows lower-level entities to inherit the attributes of higher-level entities.